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Japanese hatchet and axe heads from Mizuno Seisakujo in Sanjo, Niigata Province are normally made with a 3-layer laminated steel head (Warikomi): there is a hard steel insert of 0.45% carbon steel in the middle for the cutting edge and two softer iron laminations to support it and form the rest of the head. The forest hatchet and the splitting axe are made of unlaminated steel. The axe handles, or hafts, are made of the sapwood of Japanese white oak.
Never use these axes as a hammer! Never use a hammer on the axe! The head and eye can become deformed and the shaft can become loose!